The casemates in Luxemburg have been built in 1644 from Spanish engineers. This casemates are full of mystery and if they could tell their gloomy stories from times gone bye it would be very interesting as it was the most envied fortress in Europe.
It is quite adequat that part of the European political parts are here in Luxemburg as the casemat have been built by Italian, Spansih, Belgian, French, Austrian, Dutch and Prussian engineers. All this different people of different heritage took part in the gradual extension of the fortifications of this stronghold.
The first casemates were built in 1644 under Spanish domination. The enlargement of the 23 km long underground galleries took place 40 years later, under the direction of the military engineer and fortifications builder Vauban, and later, in the 18th century, under the Austrians.
Luxemburg was called the "Gibraltar of the North" in these times. In 1867 the casemates were dismantled following the neutralisation of Luxemburg. This lasted for 16 years and the casemates were reduced to 17 km.
Here is one plan showing the casemates from the side and above and some more images from the underground casemates.